Acinetobacter haemolyticus A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Acinetobacter, Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Moraxellaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii Park
The bacteria has been found to contaminate respirators and hospital air when there are colonized patients present, as well as nearby bed blankets and bed curtains.
Can J Microbiol.
In whey substrate, the mutant strain maintained its ability to produce the same amount of cellulose as in PYSL. S.L
Whey composition varies, but it is composed of approximately 4–5% lactose, 0.8–1% protein and trace minerals, vitamins, organic acid . G
Comparison of cellulose production between the modified and wild-type Acetobacter strains in different substrates.
It has garnered media attention because of an outbreak among soldiers in Iraq who contracted the species Acinetobacter baumannii. The concentrations of antibiotics were: kanamycin (kan: 40 μg ml−1 for E. coli S17-1, 50 μg ml−1 for Acetobacter), ampicillin (Ap: 50 μg ml−1). The suspension obtained from the 48 h conjugation of recipient and donor cells in a ratio of 1:1, provided the enrichment culture where cellulose production in PYSS broth (kan) was observed. S
It include porins and efflux channels which contribute to antibiotic resistance. In the identification and characterisation of a cellulose-producing or non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) strains of Acetobacter, the colony morphology aside from pellicle formation is one of the most important criteria. Anderson
Unable to metabolize any carbohydrate or derivative. Acinetobacter puyangensis The amount of lactose utilised by the mutant strain was obtained by spectrophotometry using the lactose/d-galactose determination kit (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany). Atlas
Most strains can grow on minimal salts together with acetate, ethanol, or lactate. De Souza
baumannii complex by the formation of smooth, rounded, mucoid colonies at 37 °C. Gallotti
Acinetobacter towneri © 2020 Microbe Notes. Houston Medical School, University of Texas. Haff
A filter mating technique, based on a previous report  was followed with a few modifications . While there is much information available on the types of infections Acinetobacter causes, relatively few studies have been performed on the bacteria's genetics. Chemoorganoheterotrophic with a respiratory type metabolism. Gram negative rod, becomes spherical at stationary phase of growth. Morphology: Cell: spherical, elongated, swollen, club-shaped, curved, or filamentous;f ound as single cells, in pairs or in chains. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported during therapy, which has also resulted in increased resistance to other drug classes mediated through active drug efflux. J
, Some of the molecular methods used in species identification are repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR, ribotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction and sequence analysis of tRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacers and amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Iguchi
Of the four, strain ITz3, was finally selected because it consistently gave the highest dry weight in PYSL2. Found in hospital environment and accounts for 10% nosocomial infections in ICU. P.W
For inoculum preparation, details were essentially the same as previously described .
In the routinely used PYSS medium, the difference in cellulose production between the two strains was 40% in 2% sucrose and none in 4% sucrose. The organism was incubated at 30°C for 4 days in a static batch culture. S
This was the major factor, which predisposes the mutant strain's ability to grow and produce cellulose with lactose as the carbon source. Strain ITz3 has on the average 160-fold higher enzyme activity (4 U against 644 U) than strain ITDI 2.1, whereas the difference in specific enzyme activity between the two strains was 27 times (Table 2). J
Acinetobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the wider class of Gammaproteobacteria. It may be possible that the lacZ gene got inserted in a promoter of a locus in the direction in which transcription of the structural genes were turned on all the time resulting in the enzyme production becoming constitutive. Acinetobacter proteolyticus W
Grows readily on ethanol, lactate, or on yeast extract alone, but not on carbohydrates and derivatives. are Gram-negative coccoid rods that are sometimes difficult to destain.
 Their ability to survive on moist and dry surfaces, as well as to survive exposure to various common disinfectants, allows some Acinetobacter species to survive in a hospital environment. This means that the mutant strain synthesises cellulose roughly 90 times more than the wild-type in lactose-based medium. , Bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient bacterium through the intervening liquid medium.
Acinetobacter harbinensis Fiedler
Herper, Matthew. J Cell Biol. This 843 bp fragment after sequence comparison search revealed closest similarity to transcriptional regulators of the LysR family from different organisms. 2008. Marks
All species are strictly aerobic, catalase positive, and oxidase negative; it is the last test which is most used to distinguish Acinetobacter from other infective bacteria. It is speculated that the sequenced putative transcriptional activator gene is in the same direction as the β-galactosidase gene or the promoter that drives the expression of this gene. Acinetobacter is a genus of opportunistic pathogens in the proteobacteria group, species of which are distributed in widespread, diverse habitats. University of California LysR belongs to a family of transcriptional activators. (, Konicek
Acinetobacter modestus Because routine identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory is not yet possible, Acinetobacter isolates are divided and grouped into three main complexes: Different species of bacteria in this genus can be identified using fluorescence-lactose-denitrification to find the amount of acid produced by metabolism of glucose. Total DNA extraction was performed as outlined  and restriction enzyme digestion followed basic protocols . The genus Acinetobacter comprises 38 validly named species.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "The ecology, biology and pathogenesis of Acinetobacter spp. Recipient bacteria must first enter a special physiological state termed competence to receive donor DNA. 1979 Mar;80(3):773-7. doi: 10.1083/jcb.80.3.773. This morphology is the result of a repeated extrusion of cells from the confirming sheath, followed by regeneration of a new portion of the sheath on the extrusion of cells from the confirming sheath, followed by regeneration of a new portion of the sheath on the extruded cell mass. Acinetobacter guangdongensis
Though less common, some evidence also links this bacterium to meningitis, most often following invasive surgery, and, in very rare cases, to community-acquired primary meningitis wherein the majority of the victims were children.
The mutant strain utilised 40% (8 g l−1) and 60% (12 g l−1) of the initial lactose (20 g l−1) from PYSL and PYSW (both enriched with nitrogen sources and salts), respectively, and produced cellulose in almost the same amounts. Genus/species: Acetobacter peroxydans Gram Stain: Negative Morphology: Cell: Rod-shaped, 2-3 μm long and about 0.5 μm in width. Both strains were incubated without shaking for 48 h at 30°C to check for pellicle formation. Acinetobacter venetianus The other reliable identification test at genus level is chromosomal DNA transformation assay.