2017). On the breeding grounds, predation and brood parasitism are the most significant factors impacting local productivity, and both are exacerbated by landscape fragmentation. “Habitat Area Requirements of Breeding Forest Birds of the Middle Atlantic States.” Wildlife Monographs 103: 3–34. 2011; Danz et al. Three of the records were in the spring season, two in the summer, and one in the fall. 2000. Biologists and birders alike should continue to keep an eye out for the species in suitable habitats throughout the state. “Implications of Vagrant Southeastern Vireos and Warblers in California.” Auk 113: 911–923. The amount of black varies in other plumages, from quite extensive in many adult females to none at all in first-fall females. North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. The greatest densities are found in Louisiana, where observers report an average of 9 birds per route per year (Sauer et al. In all plumages the back is olive, the underparts are yellow, and the tail has large white spots. Disturbances, natural or prescribed, that maintain small openings with dense shrub growth are essential. “Nest Site Habitats and Breeding Biology of Hooded Warblers in Southeastern Wisconsin.” Passenger Pigeon 63: 242–252. Cutright, Noel, Bettie R. Harriman, and Robert W. Howe, eds. The female usually builds the nest and incubates four to five eggs for up to two weeks. Fall, Bruce A. Habitat in Nonbreeding Range. Logan, George. Chartier, Allen T., Jennifer J. Baldy, and John M. Brenneman, eds. Discover them all with Birds of the World. Bardon, Karl J. Nevertheless, for a species that has expanded its range from the core of its distribution in the southeastern United States, it is interesting that there are so few reports within Minnesota along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, particularly from some of the regions’ larger forest tracts on state forest lands and state parks. Forest area, however, was not an important predictor of abundance. Brackney, E. M. 1979. Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II. http://www.stateofthebirds.org/2010/pdf_files/State of the Birds_FINAL.pdf. Sauer, John R., Daniel K. Niven, James E. Hines, David J. Ziolkowski Jr., Keith L. Pardieck, Jane E. Fallon, and William A. 1975. Other studies have found that, despite the species’ apparent preference for large forest tracts, the warbler successfully nests in tracts smaller than 5 ha (Norris et al. The main wintering habitat of the hooded warbler is on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Summary statistics for the Hooded Warbler observations by breeding status category for all blocks and priority blocks (each 5 km x 5 km) surveyed during the Minnesota Breeding Bird Atlas (2009-2013). In extensive forest tracts, pockets of dense shrubs occur where canopy gaps are created by natural disturbances, such as lightning, tree falls, and windstorms or by selective harvesting. Five more breeding records were reported in 3 southeastern counties by June 1980 (Robbins 1991). 2007. Then, from 1969 through 1973, two additional reports were documented from Hennepin County (Arneson 1972; Stanley 1973) as well as one new report each from Ramsey County (Peake 1970) and Mille Lacs County (Goldberg 1973). The composition and age of the canopy appears less important than the structure and composition of the understory. Species Range Change from 2000 to 2080 The size of the circles roughly indicates the species’ range size in 2000 (left) and 2080 (right). State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Ecological and Water Resources. “Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Bird Populations.” In Workshop Proceedings on Management of Northeastern and North Central Forests for Nongame Birds, edited by Richard M. DeGraaf and Keith E. Evans, 198–212. The Hooded Warbler nests in moist deciduous and mixed forests from the lower Midwest and southern New England to the Gulf Coast. 2015. When Roberts was actively documenting Minnesota’s bird life in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the Hooded Warbler had yet to be observed in the state. “Hooded Warblers at Roberts Sanctuary.” Loon 51: 145. The Birds of Minnesota. Merrill, Samuel B. Toronto: Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature. The Hooded Warbler’s breeding habitat is broadly described as mature forest interspersed with canopy gaps that allow a dense growth of small saplings and shrubs (Figure 4) (Chiver et al. Hooded Warblers winter in the rainforests of Central America, so the model doesn’t tell us about how they will fare in the cooler months. “Hooded Warbler Netted.” Loon 45: 65. 1984. Cadman, Michael D., Donald A. Sutherland, Gregor G. Beck, Denis Lepage, and Andrew R. Couturier, eds. “Summer Season (June 1 – July 31, 1980).” Loon 53: 132–147. 2013. 1973. 1972. Since 1970, the continental population has experienced a cumulative increase of 103% (Rosenberg et al. The most comprehensive description of the Hooded Warbler’s breeding habitat in Minnesota is provided by Fall (1989), who has closely monitored the local breeding population at Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve since nesting was first documented there in 1984 (Fall 1984). During the second atlas (2008–2012), the species was reported in 14 blocks, including 4 where nesting was confirmed (Iowa Breeding Bird Atlas, Iowa Ornithologists’ Union 2016). However their brains are relatively large and their learning abilities are greater than those of most other birds. As long as a sufficient amount of large, unfragmented forest tracts remain available, population increases may continue. Both members of the pair feed the young. Conroy, Larry. 1980. Olyphant, Murray, Jr. 1962. Most are monogamous. 1975. “Species Composition of Bird Communities and the Conservation Benefit of Large Versus Small Forests.” Biological Conservation 30: 173–187. “Late Hooded Warbler in Olmsted County.” Loon 55: 30. The Hooded Warbler’s range expansion into Minnesota coincided with its expansion in the neighboring states of Wisconsin and Iowa. Elsewhere in their U.S. range, hooded warblers commonly occupy selectively logged forests one to five years after harvesting (Evans Ogden and Stutchbury 1994; NatureServe 2011). Neil, Chuck. 1977. Chiver, Ioana, Lesley Evans Ogden, and Bridget J. Stutchbury. The small woody stems provide support for the warbler’s nests, which are usually less than 1.5 m above the ground and provide foraging habitat. Finally, 42 years after the Hooded Warbler was first observed in the state, a pair nested successfully in 1984 at Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve, which straddles the Scott-Dakota county line on the southern edge of the Twin Cities metropolitan region (Fall 1984). 2017). Federal Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data have been used to generate a North American population estimate of 5.2 million birds (Rosenberg et al. From 1975 through 1983, observations of single individuals continued to be reported in Hennepin County, from Roberts Bird Sanctuary and Theodore Wirth Park, and in Anoka and Scott Counties. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Blake, John G., and James R. Karr. 1989). 2007; Bielefeldt and Rosenfield 2001). North American Breeding Distribution and Relative Abundance: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 1995, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 2013, North American Bird Conservation Initiative 2010, https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/hoowar, http://bba.iowabirds.org/SpeciesAccounts.aspx, http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mnwap/index.html, http://moumn.org/loon/reports/?species=Hooded%20Warbler, http://climate.audubon.org/birds/hoowar/hooded-warbler, http://www.stateofthebirds.org/2010/pdf_files/State of the Birds_FINAL.pdf, http://www.partnersinflight.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/pif-continental-plan-final-spread-single.pdf. 2017). Green, Janet C. 1982. Scattered reports were also documented as far as Pipestone County in the spring of 1992, Cook County in the fall of 1995, and St. Louis County in the spring of 1999 (Minnesota Ornithologists’ Union 2016). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Rush, Scott A., and Bridget J. M. Stutchbury. (Browse free accounts on the home page.). 2011; Longcore et al. Following the MNBBA, a pair also was reported nesting in 2015 at the Woodland Trails Park in Elk River, Sherburne County, where the species was first reported in 2009 (Minnesota Ornithologists’ Union 2016, MNBBA). Norris, D. Ryan, Bridget J. M. Stutchbury, and Trevor E. Pitcher.