-But the current pace of change is very rapid, -Need for transdisciplinary research on bird needs and policy possibilities]. Show it to your classroom. We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. The bird that my wife spotted, which I would later find out is a leucistic dark-eyed junco, feeds with two mourning doves in foreground. And the cloacal protuberance is a little structure on the cloaca of a bird that grows when its gonads are growing. Juncos, along with some other members of the sparrow family, practice an interesting foraging method called “riding.”  They fly up to a seed cluster on the top of a grass stem and “ride” it to the ground where they pick off the seeds while standing on it. And the difference between that is probably about a million times what we could do before in the same amount of times. Find out more about what this bird likes to eat and what feeder is best by using the Project FeederWatch Common Feeder Birds bird list. The Birder's Handbook. (2014). It looked like there’s two different lineages of Oregon juncos. [Slide text: Do male residents preferentially court resident or migrant females? Version 2.07.2017. Juncos have over 30 percent more feathers (by weight) in the winter than they do in summer. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA. I don’t have the answer for you yet. And I hope the lights are good in here so you can see that they look quite different from one another. I think you get timing differences. You can attract juncos to your yard by feeding a seed blend containing millet and hulled sunflower seeds. Then the answer is yes. And the one on the bottom, you can just see the head. So males and females are gauging their reproductive development to match when it’s likely to become suitable to breed at the place that they’re heading back to. So those birds look different enough from one another that you might think you were looking at six or 12 species. That makes them far better predictors of winter and spring than caterpillars, groundhogs or the Farmer’s Almanac. And our mission is to provide the people of the state of Indiana with predictions about the nature of environmental change, what’s coming, and what they can expect, and so they can be prepared for it. We might not welcome this harbinger of winter with the same pleasure we show robins in spring, but we’ll take note and brace for winter. I just want– they’re not. Allopatric– populations that live apart. When animal populations are impacted by human-caused changes, they are forced to move to new places, modify how they behave, or face extinction. So for these lovely little colors– and let me say quickly, this is work done by Borja Mila, who is a evolutionary phylogenetic person that we’ve worked with over the years. They sometimes fly up from the ground to catch insects from tree trunks. So I don’t think we can go so far as you were suggesting to say that because there’s a lot of variation, there might be hybridization. -natural selection]. And this movie succeeded in making extraordinary the ordinary junco. “No, it wasn’t a chickadee. Both have white bellies, so there’s just no melanin being made at all in the belly feathers. And I’ve long been interested in migratory behavior in birds. “They’re uncommon but not rare. [5]Calls include tick sounds and very high-pitched tinkling chips. Make it through the winter and start the whole cycle again. When foraging, Dark-eyed Juncos typically hop (rather than walk) on the ground, pecking or scratching at the leaf litter, or flit very low in underbrush gleaning food from twigs and leaves. And the goal of the song is to attract a female. A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds, Including All Species That Regularly Breed North of Mexico. They are often found in coniferous forests incuding pine, Douglas-fir, spruce, and fir, but also in deciduous forests such as aspen, cottonwood, oak, maple, and hickory. [Graphs: Spectrograms of song types for mountain and urban males]. Maybe it was all about the plumage change. ELLEN KETTERSON: Yeah, I haven’t. So they’re allopatric, so chance gives rise to plumage variance. Other nests may be built on a foundation of twigs, leaves and moss, then lined with grasses, ferns, rootlets, hair, and fine pieces of moss. I’d like to have it clear. And males may be picking up on scent cues– we don’t know this yet. "Dark-eyed Junco (, Neal, Joseph C. (2003). [View of a forest, spider web, and sign for Kent Farm Research Station. But it’s kind of whispered, and maybe to be less likely to be detected in the forest by another male bird. [14] For example, in the Sierra Nevada of eastern California, J. hymealis populations will migrate to winter ranges 5,000–7,000 feet (1,500–2,100 m) lower than their summer range. (1994). But in any case, thank you in both your names. The six basic groups were formerly considered separate species (and the Guadalupe junco frequently still is), but they interbreed extensively in areas of contact. [Slide text: Distribution dynamic over space and time- BBS and species distribution modeling, Image: Map of North America with dots concentrated on the West Coast and in the East, with some across Canada]. Okay. The Elliott Coues Award by the then American Ornithologists Union, now the AOS– American Ornithological Society– 1996. Females are brownish-gray, sometimes with reddish-brown flanks. How much time am I allowed? So what we can conclude from that, of course, is that they are now all over where I showed you the breeding bird survey data, but they weren’t there then.